Verbs – perfect (regular)
For the perfect tense, you need to make a past participle (ge-form). You do that like this:
- take the present tense ik-form and add ge-to it,
- place a -t at the end when the ik-form ends on one of the consonants in kofschiptaxi and add -d when it doesn’t.
So for fietsen it will be ik heb gefietst, and for rennen it will be ik heb gerend.
Three remarks on that:
- To choose by listening between -t and -d for a past participle, in fact you could listen if the past gets -te(n) or -de(n), which is easier to hear: the difference between just -d or -t at the end,as in past participles, is not heard in Dutch (they’re both pronounced as t).
- The past participles of verbs that have an infinitive form starting with ge-, be-, ve-, re-, or ont- do not get ge-. So for betalen (to pay) it will be ik heb betaald and not gebetaald.
- For the perfect tense you mostly use hebben, like you use ‘to have’ in English. But there are – a bit more than in English – verbs or situations where you use zijn (tobe). For example when you use a verb that means ‘to go somewhere’ and a direction is indicated. So it would be ik heb in het park gefietst (I have been cycling in thepark – no direction) but ik ben naar het station gefietst (I have cycled to the station – clear direction).